Tuesday, November 4, 2008


What is hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. The iron contained in hemoglobin is responsible for the red color of blood.

How is hemoglobin measured?
Several methods exist for measuring hemoglobin, most of which are done currently by automated machines designed to perform several different tests on blood. Within the machine, the red blood cells are broken down to get the hemoglobin into a solution. The free hemoglobin is exposed to a chemical containing cyanide which binds tightly with the hemoglobin molecule to form cyanmethemoglobin. By shining a light through the solution and measuring how much light is absorbed (specifically at a wavelength of 540 nanometers), the amount of hemoglobin can be determined.

What are normal hemoglobin values?
The hemoglobin level is expressed as the amount of hemoglobin in grams (gm) per deciliter (dl) of whole blood, a deciliter being 100 milliliters.
The normal ranges for hemoglobin depend on the age and, beginning in adolescence, the sex of the person. The normal ranges are:
Newborns: 17-22 gm/dl
One (1) week of age: 15-20 gm/dl
One (1) month of age: 11-15gm/dl
Children: 11-13 gm/dl
Adult males: 14-18 gm/dl
Adult women: 12-16 gm/dl
Men after middle age: 12.4-14.9 gm/dl
Women after middle age: 11.7-13.8 gm/dl

All of these values may vary slightly between laboratories. Some laboratories do not differentiate between adult and "after middle age" hemoglobin values.

What does a low hemoglobin level mean?
A low hemoglobin is referred to as being anemic. There are many reasons for anemia. Some of the more common reasons are loss of blood (traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer), nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B12, folate), bone marrow problems (replacement of bone marrow by cancer, suppression by chemotherapy drugs, kidney failure), and abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia).

What does a high hemoglobin level mean?
Higher than normal hemoglobin levels can be seen in people living at high altitudes and in smokers. Dehydration produces a falsely high hemoglobin which disappears when proper fluid balance is restored. Some other infrequent causes are lung disease, certain tumors, a disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia rubra vera, and abuse of the drug erythropoietin (Epogen) by athletes for blood doping purposes.

What causes a low hemoglobin count?
Hemoglobin is the iron-rich protein in red blood cells that gives blood its red color. The normal range of hemoglobin is approximately 14 to 17 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 grams per deciliter for women. A low hemoglobin count indicates a low red blood cell count (anemia). Anemia can have many causes, including:
- Vitamin and iron deficiencies
- Acute or chronic bleeding
- Hormone deficiencies, such as thyroid hormone or testosterone
- Chronic diseases, such as kidney failure, cancer and Crohn's disease
- Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus
- Side effect of certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs

Treatment depends on the underlying cause.

How Can You Make Money with Your Blog

How Can You Make Money with Your Blog?By: Jerry Leung
Nearly every one will have a blog nowadays. Many people are writing blogs for fun. However, some others may want to earn some extra money by blogging. In fact, it is not an easy task to make money by blogging. It may be easy to make just ten cents a day but it is not easy to make big money. Luckily, there are still many ways for you to make money with your blog and there is always a chance of making more money by blogging.

Pay Per Click Advertisement System
Pay per click system is a system that will pay you when a web surfer clicks on the advertisement. You can allocate adv space for these system and you can start earning money. One of the most famous pay per click (PPC) advertisement systems will probably be Google Adsense. Besides Google Adsense, there are still other PPC systems such as Adbrite. One of the drawback of PPC system is that quite a number of webmasters report that PPC system will generate less money than other systems.

To earn more money by using PPC systems, we have to go back to the idea content is king. Since the system will spider your blog and determine the advertisements which are most related to the contents, it will be better to write the contents with a focus. For example, you can run a blog on wedding and all the blog entries are on wedding. In this way the advertisements will also be about wedding. Since your blog is on wedding and it will probably attract more people who are interested in the topic. And this lift the chance of generating more clicks to the advertisements.

Affiliate Programs

Another way to make money with your blog is to join affiliate programs. You will put banners or text links on your blog and you will get paid when people click the banner, visiting the websites of the affiliate program and place order. This will be a more difficult way to make money than using PPC system but you will probably earn more if you run it well.There are certainly many other ways to make money with your blog. For example, you can sell your adv spaces to other companies or websites. This of course will need very hard work. But there is no free lunch in the world. There is no way to make money without effort.

Article Source: http://articlesonblogging.com